Jon Atack is the author of A Piece of Blue Sky, one of the very best books on L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology. He has a new edition of the book for sale, and for more than a year on Saturdays he helped us sift through the legends, myths, and contested facts about Scientology that tend to get hashed and rehashed in books, articles, and especially on the Internet. He was kind enough to send us a new post.
One of the great surprises for us here in the Underground Bunker over the last couple of years has been our ongoing relationship with Jon Atack. He continually amazes us with his deep delves into the background, motivations, and obfuscations of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard. And now, Jon has outdone himself with an exploration of the Scientology mind that leaves us in awe. Prepare to be probed.
JON: By now, we know each other well enough to speak plainly. Putting aside all of the hopes and dreams and the sincere belief of its victims that Scientology is the salvation of Humanity, the truth is that the goal of Scientology was to flow money, power and authority to Ron Hubbard. There are no Clears and there are no OTs. Scientology does not lead to success in every walk of life. It all too often leads to catastrophe and despair, to financial ruin, broken families and even suicide.
One of the provisional titles for my tome Let’s sell these people A Piece of Blue Sky was “Hubbard through the Looking Glass” (you’ll find it listed in Russell Miller’s excellent book under that name, if you were mystified where Miller’s basic research came from). And through the looking glass is where the truth of Hubbard lies: Scientology is the very opposite of salvation. It is slavery.
Ultimately, this system is intended to deify Hubbard, as even that truest believer Marty Rathbun has finally realized. As Hubbard said in his 1938 letter to his first wife, his only goal was to smash his name into history. OT VIII is the final level — the purported 15 levels above, announced in the 1970s, are mythical, though as Tony Ortega has revealed, Miscavige spent over 10 million of his tax free dollars watching Pat Broeker for 24 years, just in case the final section of the Bridge existed. As it is, the Bridge fails to span the Abyss. But, as both Bridge and Abyss are figments of Hubbard’s malign imagination, we need not worry too much about his abject failure as a spiritual engineer.
On OT VIII Hubbard asserts himself the Source of the universe itself — the Creator or Demiurge. This fits in with those philosophies that portray God as narcissistic and malevolent (Hubbard’s guru Aleister Crowley’s view of Christianity, for instance). This particular god is also known as the Devil. And that was Hubbard’s aim, as he fairly clearly stated in his secret Blood Ritual ceremony, which was shown to me by Hubbard’s erstwhile official biographer, Omar Garrison, 20 years ago.
The aim of Scientology is to reduce the free individual to obedience to the orders and policies of Scientology. Quite simply put, it does not bring about “self-determinism” but “Ron-determinism,” where the follower (or Dev-OT) is in complete accord with the fantasies and fabrications of the Founder.
With Hubbard’s death, the goal of Scientology became simply to raise Hubbard to godhood. It has no other purpose. When Hubbard began to suspect David Miscavige’s intentions, he ordered a security check, which was carried out by his senior “technical terminal,” Jesse Prince. The results of that security check were never revealed to Hubbard, because they were waylaid by Pat Broeker. However, Jesse says that both Miscavige and Broeker were stealing Hubbard’s cash to gamble in Las Vegas. And Scientology is “the most ethical group on the planet,” or so we are told. It seems that Miscavige may be the only person left in the Organization who understands the purpose of the game: To raise Hubbard to godhood with the additional benefit of maintaining his own demonic lifestyle. And, if you don’t believe he is truly demonic, ask yourself has anyone ever ordered as many pregnancies to be terminated as this man? Not even Hubbard took so many innocent lives.
Scientology is a system of procedures that induces euphoria (“very good indicators”) and heightens suggestibility (obedience training or OT) so that the tenets of Scientology will be followed and Hubbard deified. Elsewhere, the same techniques are called hypnosis. Hubbard said of hypnosis: “It reduces self-determinism by interposing the commands of another below the analytical level of an individual’s mind” (Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary, from Science of Survival, Book 2, p.220). It is a good definition and is achieved on a daily basis by Hubbard’s cult.
Here is one of the most relevant statements that Hubbard ever made. I shall quote it at length, because it is the essential truth of Scientology: “In altitude teaching, somebody is a ‘great authority.’ He is probably teaching some subject that is far more complex than it should be [Scientology is the most complex system ever devised by any single ‘great authority’]. He has become defensive down through the years, and this is a sort of protective coating that he puts up, along with the idea that the subject will always be a little better known by him than by anybody else and that there are things to know in this subject which he really wouldn’t let anybody else in on. This is altitude instruction.” In Keeping Scientology Working, Hubbard asserted that every major tenet in Scientology and Dianetics was his exclusive discovery. This is most certainly “altitude instruction”!
Hubbard continues, “And in order to get people to sit very alertly and do exactly what he says, he has another trick: he gives them examinations [‘star rate checkouts’] … So there is this anxiety around a person’s grades, and this comes forward until he finally gets up to a point in education where when somebody says the word examination to him it not only push-buttons him but it also threatens Mama, Papa, love and general survival. It is a terrific whip. It keeps people in a state of confusion, and when their minds are slightly confused they are in a hypnotic trance. Any time anybody gets enough altitude he can be called a hypnotic operator, and what he says will act as hypnotic suggestion. Hypnotism is a difference in levels of altitude. There are ways to create and lower the altitude of the subject, but if the operator can heighten his own altitude with regard to the subject the same way, he doesn’t have to put the subject to sleep. What he says will still react as hypnotic suggestion.” (my italics; Education and Dianetics, 11 November 1950, Research and Discovery Series, volume 4, 1st edition, pp.324-5)
So, Hubbard’s altitude — the only creator of “Tech” — means that “what he says will still react as hypnotic suggestion.” Not simply “act,” note, but “react,” as in “reactive mind.” Of course the “reactive mind” is that part of the mind which acts below consciousness — the hypnotic mind, in Hubbard’s terms (the reality is rather more complex, but you have to get past the anti-brain implant to approach the unconscious mind in all its glory). Hubbard fashioned the reactive mind, gifted it to his followers and filled it chock full with implants, so that Scientologists have about as much self-determinism as Pavlov’s dogs after their testicles had been removed.
The implanted positive suggestions of Scientology are the beliefs themselves. It is amazing how simply these beliefs come apart, if you can only confront them head on. Raising communication does not raise affinity — or yelling, beating, and brutalising would be useful means for bringing love into the world. In the eight dynamics, it is risible that the individual has the same vote as the entire of humanity, or that God is allowed only one vote. Those who believe in God would surely not go against His (or Her) will, no matter how much it seems to benefit the other seven dynamics. Scientology is a farrago of pseudoscience. Curiously, the word “scientology” was first used to mean exactly that, long before Hubbard redefined it. It is an edifice that crumbles once logic is focused upon it.
The beliefs are held in place by phobia induction. As Jesse Prince says, when he left, it was too scary to even look at contradictions. The much vaunted “confront” of the Scientologist blinks into darkness and terror. The tenets become unquestionable assumptions, and, by the very laws of reason, such assumptions must be questioned by rational people (Let me again recommend John Stuart Mill’s seminal text On Liberty). Otherwise, superstition, instinct, intuition and emotion will pitch us into blind obedience, because all are so readily manipulable. Only reason can dig us out of the tyranny of irrationality. Like it or not, we have to be self-determined if we are to escape from the traps laid for us by tricksters. And self-determinism is based upon making our own estimation of reality, which, in turn, is based upon cold, hard reasoning. But didn’t Hubbard claim to have founded a science? Something that can be tested by observation and experiment, rather than a grab bag of suppositions and authoritarian assertions.
The system works using the “two terminal universe” concept. In Science of Survival, Hubbard borrowed Korzybski’s concept of infinity-valued logic. Korzybski is acknowledged in the frontispiece of that book, as one of the thinkers “without whose speculations and observations the creation and construction of Dianetics would not have been possible.” (Though Hubbard would later assert that his were the only contributions of any value in “50,000 years.” But contradiction keeps the marks confused, so that they will do as they are told.)
In Notes on the Lectures, Hubbard asserts: “Primitive logic was one-valued. Everything was assumed to be the product of a divine will, and there was no obligation to decide the rightness or wrongness of anything. Most logic added up eerily to the propitiation of the gods. Aristotle formulated two-valued logic. A thing was either right or wrong. This type of logic is used by the reactive mind. In the present day, engineers are using a sort of three-valued logic which contains the values of right, wrong, and maybe. From three-valued logic we jump to infinity-valued logic — a spectrum which moves from infinite wrongness to infinite rightness.” (cited in the Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary under “logic”).
Scientology does not use infinity-valued logic, rather it uses single-valued logic — not the “will of God” but the will of Hubbard. There is no flexibility in Scientology: You follow the “Technology” to the letter (the “white taped route”). No matter how “OT” you become, you will never reach Hubbard’s level: You will never be able to see how the universe works and discover any “technology” yourself. You might be a god, but he is a god-maker. If you subscribe to his infantile narcissism, that is.
The definition of infinity-valued logic in Science of Survival is: “It is a tenet of Dianetics that absolutes are unobtainable. Terms like good and bad, alive and dead, right and wrong are used only in conjunction with gradient scales. On the scale of right and wrong, everything above zero or centre would be more right, approaching an infinity of rightness, and everything below zero or centre would be more and more wrong, approaching an infinite wrongness. The gradient scale is a way of thinking about the universe which approximates the actual conditions of the universe more closely than any other existing logical method.” Hubbard certainly didn’t waste time on humility! (And it would be interesting to see the “gradient scale” of death as a condition — is Hubbard more or less dead now that he was in 1986?).
Still, this idea was quickly abandoned in favour of the Will of Hubbard. The two-terminal concept pervades Scientology — dual-valued logic (right and wrong) — at best. So, we find “goals problems masses,” which are the basis of Grade 6, the Clearing Course, the original OT I and the current OT II. According to Hubbard this is the foundation of the Reactive Mind or “R6 Bank.” These are the “implants” given during Incident Two of OT III, 75 million years ago.
The notion is that “charge” is generated by two poles, so the individual is held in place by contradictions — such as “to be or not to be.” Scientology itself is a two-terminal structure, where almost every assertion has a contradiction (as we saw in my piece on double binds). This induces cognitive dissonance — confusion — where the individual becomes unable to decide, so must ask for direction from the outside. The implants of Scientology tend to follow this pattern. Confusion technique is the most basic method of hypnosis. In the blank, while the mind hunts for sense, a positive suggestion (or command) can be quickly inserted.
The restriction on discussion of the “technology” — verbal tech — ensures that believers do not articulate the ideas. And the best way to see illogic is to try and articulate it, as any schoolteacher knows. Long ago, my good friend Eileen Griswold told me about the 1970s OT Committee in East Grinstead, which would meet every week to discuss the axioms of Scientology. After months of discussion, they realized that they could not make head nor tail of these pseudoscientific assertions, which are most certainly not “self-evident,” as Hubbard claimed. Try to twist your head around “space is a viewpoint of dimension” for instance. One auditor spent almost two hours trying to explain this meaningless tautology to me, eventually admitting that it says nothing (let alone being the first time that space has been defined without reference to matter or energy, as Hubbard claimed. Einstein’s ‘”spacetime” was way beyond his comprehension, it seems, but then he did fail a course in atomic and molecular physics before being chucked out of college).
Perhaps the worst part of any cult is the imposition of a parasitic identity on the believer. Among the strongest support for the reality of cult damage comes from the personality tester, Flavil Yeakley, who was asked by the Boston Church of Christ to assess its members. He found that in cult groups, such as the BCC, Scientology, the Moonies and the Way International, members all exhibit the personality profile of the group (which differs from group to group), where in normal Christian congregations there is a wide variety of personality types.
In simple language: Scientology clones its member, until they are as alike as peas in a pod (only rather more green). Sadly, this means that ex-members must not only relieve themselves of the loaded language and the engrained behaviours, but also of the whole set of implants. We all struggle to do this. It took me six months to stop “confronting” people, and I was surprised to find that I noticed much more once I’d stopped. It also brought me out of the self-perpetuating trance that this locked-on eye contact induces. As a side note, teachers in the UK are told not to stare at pupils, because it is considered bullying. Both the police and the military have long been cautioned about the effect of staring. It is the habit of predators.
I have met many, many former members who remain trapped in the implants, years after leaving the cult, the Tech, and the loaded language. You have to take the tenets head on if you are to escape them and reclaim your humanity; your self-determinism. If you do not disagree with Hubbard on any point, that is conclusive proof that you are not self-determined.
Scientology can be stripped down into a series of implants. These are patterns of behaviour that will persist even after auditing is abandoned. See how many of them you recognise, and then please, please add some more (why should I have all the fun?).
The first set are the phobia inductions, which will prevent the believer from going astray, or thinking (and after all, on the “know to mystery scale,” “thinkingness” is low tone, just below “effortingness” and to be avoided — why bother when Ron can do it for you?).
To become a successful cult, it is necessary to ring fence your believers against any analysis of your methods. So the “mixed practices” implant is imposed. You cannot meditate, do yoga or take medicine without permission. You cannot receive any form of psychotherapy. Texts by other authors are dismissed (except for the occasional recommendation of an Aleister Crowley book, works on hypnosis, hard selling and spying — and all Scientologists should read every one of those recommended texts, to gain insight into the Founder).
But most of all, you must be terrified of any profession that sports the prefix “psych.” Hubbard had his own gripes — his second wife (“I had no second wife”), Sara, had convinced a psychiatrist to diagnose Hubbard mentally ill — but to isolate the whole science of psychology, where many of the answers to his tricks and traps reside, was essential. So we find that the “psychs and priests” are the “same crew…who existed way, way back the track.” (False Purpose Rundown PL). Sea Org members are told, in the Hygiene Hat, that the “psychs” control the world with perfume (for reasons unknown, this is kept from public Scientologists, who blithely continue to use scented products, so presumably remain under the spell of the psychs, no matter how much auditing they buy).
The “psych conspiracy” is one of Hubbard’s more fanciful notions. I’ve yet to meet any two psychiatrists, psychologists, or psychotherapists who agree on any single thing. I do agree with him that some of them are awful people, but conspiracy? Not a chance. There are hundreds of schools of psychotherapy, and the practitioners most certainly don’t agree. But, as Hitler observed, if you want a strong group, you must create an enemy. He rated Jews, bankers, and communists. Hubbard rated psychs, bankers, and communists. Loathing and disgust bind a group together, after all. Disgust may be the most overlooked emotion in the panoply of exploitative persuasion. And it is so easy to excite.
Hubbard protected himself from censure with the “third party implant.” The notion that quarrels only begin because of a hidden third party is ludicrous, but it means that if you are upset with Hubbard, it isn’t his fault, but some invisible suppressive (whatever happened to the idea that the suppressive is always “hidden”?). I’ve met enough bullies to know that they don’t need any third party for their behaviour. Much easier to face the truth than believe this third party implant to be true.
The “suppressive person implant” ostracises anyone who points to any defect in Hubbard or his system (This is the purpose of the suppressive person declare). Hubbard knew he was safe stealing psychiatrist Hervey Cleckley’s ideas about “anti-social personalities” and giving them his usual tweak (after Scientology wouldn’t persist with being “alter-ised” according to his ideas — there must be a lie involved for anything to persist, and Scientology is a Big Lie). It didn’t stop him from passing on plenty of bad news and “broad generalities” about the “psychs”, but it did allow him to wage “fair game” campaigns and use the fundamental method of any cult — shunning or “disconnection.” The belief that any problem can be solved by running away from it is the opposition terminal to the “confront” that is also preached. Yet another double bind: “Communication is the universal solvent” and “disconnection” is the universal solution. I agree with Gerry Armstrong that the SP doctrine is the very heart of Scientology: Treat opponents as sociopaths and you will become a sociopath. A Hubbard clone.
The “missed withhold implant” tells us that people only criticise others — or natter — because they fear their secrets may have been discovered. This again provides Hubbard with a cloak of invisibility. OK, he was a lousy husband and father, a chain smoker who stank because of his rotten teeth, but, even though these statements are true, I’m only making them because he missed my withholds. Get a grip!
As Hubbard said, in his Propaganda by Redefinition of Words: “WORDS ARE REDEFINED TO MEAN SOMETHING ELSE TO THE ADVANTAGE OF THE PROPAGANDIST.” (emphasis in original, see more about this subject in my essay at Jonny Jacobson’s website, Infinite Complacency.) Hubbard tells us that we can be controlled by the redefinition of words, and then proceeds to pour forth more redefinitions than anyone in history — two 500 page dictionaries. So, start with “open-minded,” which according to one online dictionary means “Willing to consider new ideas; unprejudiced.” In Keeping Scientology Working, we find, “When somebody enrols, consider he or she has joined up for the duration of the universe — never permit an ‘open-minded’ approach.” Now, I can feel the grind of cognitive dissonance in the minds of the true believers, so let’s put this simply: To be a Scientologist you must be unwilling to consider new ideas (ie, non-Scientology ideas) and you must adopt Hubbard’s prejudices wholesale and without additional thought.
Let’s move on to “reasonable.” Prior to Hubbard’s propagandist redefinition of this term, it meant: “having sound judgement; fair and sensible.” In the Admin dictionary, however, at definition two for “reasonableness” we find: “faulty explanations.” Again, for the true believer, I must point out that there is no need to redefine words when there are already perfectly adequate terms in English. It inevitably leads to “misunderstood words.” Such as “faulty explanations.” Unless you want to control people, that is.
With these terms, Hubbard shows part of a pattern to neutralise dissent. You must be neither open-minded nor reasonable. Indeed, the redefinition of “open-minded” is extracted from this instruction: “When somebody enrols, consider he or she has joined up for the duration of the universe — never permit an ‘open-minded’ approach … If they enrolled, they’re aboard, and if they’re aboard they’re here on the same terms as the rest of us — win or die in the attempt. Never let them be half minded about being Scientologists … When Mrs. Pattycake comes to us to be taught, turn that wandering doubt in her eye into a fixed, dedicated glare…The proper instruction attitude is, ‘We’d rather have you dead than incapable’.”
In other words, to be a Scientologist, you must be a fanatic. This rather precludes thinking for yourself — self-determinism — but it does fit in with one of Hubbard’s pre-Scientology secret scales, where he listed “fanatics and zealots” as a necessity to create his own divinity.
Now for the “misunderstood word implant” — “the only reason a student gives up a study,” we are told (apart from “too steep a gradient” or “suppressive rendition” and various other notions). This diverts the student from the wood — which can no longer be seen — to the trees. What Hubbard says isn’t contradictory nonsense: The fault lies with the student, who has failed to understand the brilliance of Hubbard’s ideas. But, it’s a tough universe and “only the tigers survive” and as the Admin dictionary tells us, a “tiger” is someone with “continued out ethics.”
A dear friend of mine, who has probably helped thousands of members from over a hundred different cults, told me that ex-Scientologists are consistently the most arrogant of former members (sorry, guys). I must admit that by the end of my first dozen years, I was appalled that ex-members not only did nothing to support my work, but instead actively attacked me. Even those who reckoned to have left the “Tech” far behind. It was a disillusioning experience, but the implants continue and they explain the cold selfishness all too often expressed by former members (obviously, this does not apply to any of my readers, who will all be sending me a hefty check for Christmas).
If Scientologists are cloned into a single identity, the central aspect of that identity is the lack of compassion. This is the “no sympathy” implant (we could call them “engrams” if you prefer — as Scientology creates a reactive mind, full of simple slogan instructions and knee jerk unthinking reactions — did I say “through the looking glass”?). A good fanatic must have no compunction about destroying an enemy (“dispensing of existence” the last phase of Robert Jay Lifton’s thought reform program). Enemies are vermin. So, the Nazis called Jews and the Romani “fleas” or “rats.” And Hubbard called defectors “squirrels” and labels them “fair game.”
The “no sympathy” implant says that we should not show sympathy, because it will weaken the poor victim. You will be “rewarding a down statistic” — which shows just how much Hubbard favoured Pavlovian logic over compassion. This is the warrior notion that allowed both the Spartans and the Nazis to gain victories. Thankfully, both of these ruthless cultures are long gone. A lack of sympathy is a lack of compassion. Look at how badly affected all of Hubbard’s own children were by his utter lack of sympathy for them. The hardest part of helping second generation members is helping them to love. They may just stare blankly when someone is distressed. They have no idea what to do.
This is compounded by the absence of love in Scientology. Hubbard dismissed it: “love, as a word, has too many meanings, and so we use an old, old word, affinity, as meaning the love or brotherhood from one dynamic to another” (Handbook for Preclears). Of course, this meaning was not “old, old” but invented on the spot by Hubbard. The closest I can find is “relationship by inclination; companionship,” which according to the Oxford entered the English language in 1611. The word “love” has been with us for at least a millennium longer, and what a lovely word it is.
Putting aside my hair-splitting, “affinity” is also a chemical term, denoting the willingness to be close. In electromagnetic terms, opposites attract (more of that “two-terminal universe”), in chemical terms, they tend to repel or neutralise each other. But love, that greatest of all feelings, is removed from the equation. Affinity is simply the willingness to be near. The great teachings of the Indian and the Levantine religions are put aside. If I have not caritas — or love — I am nothing, St Paul assures us. Well, by that definition, Scientologists are nothing.
Compassion is the first step of the Buddhist path. But Scientology instead has “communication” and thousands of pages of vituperative hatred in the inimitable Hubbard style: “if possible, ruin him utterly,” “If attacked on some vulnerable point by anyone or anything or any organization, always find or manufacture enough threat against them to cause them to sue for peace … Don’t ever defend. Always attack.” “Start feeding lurid, blood sex crime [sic] actual evidence on the attackers to the press.” At the same time, we should “refuse all invitations to hate” and “advocate total freedom.” Two terminals? This is the god Janus, or Hubbard’s own “Empress” the goddess Hathor, celebrated in his secret Blood Ritual ceremony — performed as he was creating Dianetics (which is, of course, dedicated to the Greek incarnation of Hathor, Diana). Hathor is both the feeder and the destroyer of humanity in the Crowley system that Hubbard practised throughout his life.
To keep the absence of concern for others in place is the “forgiveness implant.” This is clearly stated in the Hubbard Bulletin Proclamation: Power to Forgive. All you have to do is confess to be relieved of your guilt. One member put it succinctly, saying he could now do anything he liked and all he had to do was pay for a confessional! Instead of apologising to the injured party and making amends for the offence.
Despite years of harassment, only one former GOSA agent has ever apologised to me. No one has yet suggested that they should do anything to repair the damage done during those many years. There is no responsibility (it was for the good of the cause, and they sincerely believed that destroying me and my family, was the right thing to do, so why feel the slightest concern?), no contrition and certainly no amends (“making amends” is, after all a down tone emotion, very near to death). Let me assure you that until you make recompense or at least apologise to those you harmed because of Scientology, you will stew in your own juices. Or your own “motivators.” You will be a sociopath, in other words, and you have my every sympathy.
An aspect of implanting is the crass belief that we are the authors of all of our own misfortune. Our wishes and our sins direct the universe. Hubbard ridiculed this Christian Science belief in a 1940s story, and then adopted it as a basis for Scientology. Somehow, his own persistent illness was caused not by “PTSness” but by his heroic research. As he said, the rules don’t apply to the games maker. Anything nasty that happens to you is your own fault (and anything nice is because of Hubbard. All cults share this mechanism). Elsewhere this fatalism and belief in a simplistic mechanical universe is called the “just world” concept, and it is buried deep in the psyche of most of us, because we hate to believe in chance or coincidence. Or the idea that bad things happen to good people. If that were true, we’d have to have sympathy for those who suffer. My late, marvellous friend Sheona Fox-Ness, assured me that I should not waste my time on Scientologists, because they have “pulled it in.” I asked her if she would leave a child to fall under a bus by the same logic. Compassion?
It amazes me how many former Scientologists continue to exhibit narcissistic sociopathy, as if it were the way to be, but it is the systematic erosion of compassion that leads to this self-centred behaviour. At the heart of this arrogance is the “only one” implant. Most ex-members believe that they have a special understanding of Scientology. Each is the “only one” to really understand Hubbard’s ideas. This is also the “know best” implant. Hubbard criticised both of these behaviours, as he quietly slipped them into the mix.
There are many other implants, but it is vital that we discover them for ourselves. I have no intention of becoming an ex-Scientology guru (though gratitude and cash are certainly welcome — I’ve gone into hock again to take the time to write these pieces, so please at least give copies of my books as Xmas presents and excoriate anyone who is providing them for free on the internet!). This leads us to the “exchange implant” which is linked to the “overt/motivator implant.” This is the belief that everything comes to you because of your postulates (or “wishes” to return the redefinition to its true meaning and show just how childish it really is). So you don’t have to be grateful or pay for anything that has been freely given. The “opp term” which holds this implant in place is the “free service — free fall” policy, which puts forward the ridiculous notion that if you don’t pay you won’t benefit from “services.” I don’t think it will make any difference to the efficiency of my plumber’s work if he offers to work for free. Though the labourer is worthy of his (or her) hire.
I would be very grateful if readers could come up with some of the many other implants, because, frankly, I’m worn out, after months working on this article!
Posted by Tony Ortega on November 29, 2014 at 07:00
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